These answers are only a basic guideline, and consultation / discussion with medical professionals is necessary and preferred.
Depression is one of the most common mental health disorders, with more than 300 million people around the world having some form of it. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that by 2021, depression will be one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The World Economic Forum predicts it to be second only to heart disease in terms of cost-effectiveness.
To understand how to treat depression, researchers perform clinical trials in which they compare two or more treatments on participants who have been diagnosed with depression. These can include antidepressant medications, psychotherapy, in the case of PsiDeR both methods.
A clinical trial is a research study that gathers scientific data for people who are interested in the treatment of their condition and its effects. A depression clinical trial is a research study that gathers scientific data for the treatment of depression and its effects.
Depression is a mental health disorder characterized by an all-encompassing sense of sadness, lethargy, and hopelessness.
In the UK, around 1 in 5 adults will suffer from major depressive disorder in their lifetimes. Around 16% will have experienced an episode of depression.
Most people with depression do not know they have it. They often start to feel worse or develop symptoms like being more irritable or having difficulty concentrating on tasks due to feelings of sadness and hopelessness. These feelings may continue for weeks or months until they are finally diagnosed with depression.
Clinically depressed refers to a medical diagnosis of depression. Often determined by a series of interviews and questionnaires.
People that are depressed move more slowly and have blunted reactions. Anxious people have more energy, which they utilise to keep track of all their anxious thoughts.
People suffering from anxiety are more likely to have a fear of the future.
People who are depressed rather than anxious are less prone to be concerned about future events. Despite their belief that things would worsen, they are typically resigned to the fact that there is little they can do about it.
Many people who are depressed also have other conditions of mental health. Disorder of anxiety often goes hand in hand. People with anxiety disorders are struggling with intense feelings of fear, worries and/or panic which cannot be controlled. These feelings can interfere with day-to-day work and last a long time, often ending with depression.
Referring to the more common medication for treating depression:
The side effects of antidepressants can initially cause problems, but usually improve over time.
Even if you’re experiencing adverse effects, it’s critical to stick with your treatment because it will take many weeks before you see results.
With time, you should find that the therapeutic benefits outweigh any negative side effects.
Antidepressants, particularly SSRIs, can cause a dramatic drop in sodium (salt) levels in the elderly, a condition known as hyponatraemia.This can result in a build-up of fluid inside the body’s cells, which can be harmful.
When people first start taking antidepressants, they may have suicidal thoughts and a desire to self-harm. Young people under the age of 25 appear to be particularly vulnerable. However, this is known to be rare.
The side effects of SSRIs and SNRIs are known as serotonin syndrome, which is a rare but potentially dangerous group of symptoms. When the levels of a molecule called serotonin in your brain grow too high, serotonin syndrome develops.
When you take an SSRI or SNRI with another medicine (or substance) that elevates serotonin levels, such as another antidepressant or St John’s Wort, it’s called a serotonin syndrome.
In early 2021 (27 January to 7 March), about one-fifth of individuals (21%) reported some type of depression, up from 19% in November 2020 and more than double the rate seen before the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic (10 percent ).
Is anxiety caused by migraines? Is it possible for migraines to be caused by depression?
Doctors, aren’t sure what the link is. Because migraines may be so severe, many people experience despair or anxiety months or years after they first experience them. Many others, on the other hand, experience migraine following a period of depression or anxiety. This suggests that depression and anxiety aren’t usually a result of having migraines.
A broad range of tests were analysed and the review included 81 studies from 22 countries.In studies yielding 138 psychometric data sets, forty unique depression screening tools suitable for self-administration were identified.
18 screening tools were found to be suitable for use in primary care based on their ease of administration.
Only the PHQ-9 test and WHO-5 tests outperformed the others in terms of accuracy.
Typically there is a percentage of people who are resistant to treatments offered to alleviate depression symptoms, referred to as treatment resistant depression. Which is the criteria for inclusion for the PsiDeR trial, to test effectiveness of psilocybin where other treatments (therapy/medication) have had no impact.
The human brain is a complex structure. Some individuals believe that depression is caused by alterations in brain chemistry that are subsequently ‘fixed’ by antidepressants since antidepressants operate by altering brain chemistry.
Some doctors may inform you that you have a “chemical imbalance” that must be addressed with medicine.
However, there is little evidence of this, and we also don’t know whether changes in brain chemistry are a result of or caused by depression. Depression is frequently due to a combination of factors.
For example, you may be depressed after being unwell and then experiencing a terrible incident, such as a loss. An traumatic or stressful life event, such as bereavement, divorce, sickness, redundancy, or work or money concerns, might be the catalyst for some people.
A “downward cycle” of circumstances that leads to depression is frequently discussed.
A number of factors go toward why having depression makes you feel tired. Sleep quality, diet, medications, not exercising enough and stress.
People with depression often don’t sleep as well as those without, which can result in feeling tired. Diet is another area where people with depression suffer, often being far less inclined to eat regularly or eat healthy, eating processed foods resulting in poor health. Medications such as SSRI’s can induce feelings of fatigue. Lack of physical exercise from wanting to isolate or the general malaise can lead to feelings of exhaustion at the simplest of tasks.
Depression can be mistaken for dementia because a person’s memory might be impaired by depression, making it harder for them to recall new knowledge.
This is comparable to dementia, except that a depressed person may be able to recall new knowledge after a short period of time, but an Alzheimer’s patient seldom does.
People who suffer from depression with diurnal mood fluctuation are depressed and believe that their depression symptoms feel worse in the morning, but that they improve during the day.
Depression never goes for some people.
Depression is typically only temporary and disappears once the individual has recognised their thoughts and solved the concepts that create the depression.
However, a smaller number of individuals are able to talk about their difficulties, express their ideas, take good mental care, even medicine and enjoy a happy life while remaining sad.
They may feel wonderful at times, feel less horrible in times, and feel dreadful in times, but their sadness is not permanent.
The medical name for recurring bouts of a very severe, profound depression that is debilitating and extremely painful is major depressive disorder.
During their depressed periods, bipolar people suffer from comparable debilitating depression.
People frequently return to a functional, cheerful condition between bouts.
Even between periods of severe depression, people might have lesser depression.
People with “atypical” depression may remain depressed for a long time yet appear to break out of it just long enough to laugh or enjoy something before relapsing, or they may act normally for brief periods of time.
This may be perplexing to both the depressed person and others. This does not imply that the person is any less depressed or in danger than someone who is going through a severe depressive episode without those brief breaks. Atypical depression is characterised by emotional immobility, bodily leadenness (inability to move or engage in any activity), and recurrent overeating, oversleeping, and overdoing everything.